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Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study
WAARA, SYLVIA, GAJEWSKA, MAGDALENA, DVARIONIENE, JOLANTA, EHDE, PER MAGNUS, GAJEWSKI, RYSZARD, GRABOWSKI, PAWEL, HANSSON, ANNA, KASZUBOWSKI, JACEK, OBARSKA-PEMPKOWIAK, HANNA, PRZEWLÓCKA, MARIA, PILECKI, ADAM, NAGÓRKA-KMIECIK, DAGMARA, SKARBEK, JACEK, TONDERSKI, KARIN, WEISNER, STEFAN, WOJCIECHOWSKA, EWA
Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.
Nyckelord: discharge limits; ecosystem services; sustainable cities; treatment wetlands; waste water